Monthly Archives: November 2016

Steel Flower – Jungwoo ENE co-developed Cryogenic special industrial equipments


STEEL FLOWER will acquire cryogenic industrial equipment technology and will start the LNG ship fuel supply business.

  STEEL FLOWER and JUNGWOO ENE have signed an agreement to jointly develop cryogenic special industrial equipments.

  Cryogenic industrial equipment is used in offshore plants and industrial plants using cryogenic refrigerants below -60 ° C. Especially, LNG plant equipments are capable of handling ultra-low temperatures of minus 162 ° C.

  At the agreement, representatives of Steel Flower Byeong-Kwon Kim, President Kim Kook-Jin, Researcher Jeongwoo ene and CEO Lee Sun Ha and Vice President Park Joon-Hyung attended and developed high-pressure natural gas fuel supply system (FGSS) for natural gas fuel vessels, And sharing technology contents for the development of cryogenic industrial equipments, supporting technology development expenses, and planning commercialization.

  In the meantime, Steel Flower has signed a contract to transfer the patent technology of ‘High Pressure Natural Gas Fuel Supply System (HiVAR FGSS)’, a core technology of DSME and next generation LNG fuels, I came. In addition, Jungwoo ENE, which has entered into this technology agreement, has developed technologies related to FGSS such as HP pumps, heat exchangers and cryogenic valves, followed by development of LNG compressors with large shipyards, submersible centrifugal pumps for LNG transportation, LNG cryogenic valves and control valves’ and ‘Vacuum insulation piping for cryogenic liquids’, which are expected to generate synergies through the establishment of a cooperation system.

  STEEL FLOWER Kim Byung-kwon said, “With these two companies’ technical cooperation, we will develop high-priced core parts that are dependent on imports for the time being, and will lead the development and commercialization of low-pressure high-pressure natural gas fuel supply equipment. We will actively respond to the demand for LNG-fueled vessels that are expected to be built and concentrate on preempting the world market. “

  Meanwhile, FGSS is the world’s first proprietary high pressure liquefied natural gas fuel supply system for DSME, which is the core technology of natural gas fuel vessels, which is regarded as the next generation ship.

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Why is Cargo Ventilation Important on Ships?

One of the important aspects of transporting cargo on ships is to prevent any kind of damage to the cargo. It is important to take proper care of the cargo on board ships to avoid loss of property and avert cargo claims.

Damage to cargo can happen because of several reasons such as accident, flooding, rain water, etc. Of all the reasons, moisture is one of the most common causes of cargo damage and a source of significant cargo claims.

In order to prevent damage of cargo because of moisture, ships are fitted with natural or forced ventilation systems. Moisture responsible for cargo damage is also called “sweat” on ships. Sweat is mainly of two types:

  • Cargo sweat
  • Vessel sweat

Cargo sweat refers to the condensation that occurs on the exposed surface of the cargo as a result of warm, moist air introduced in to holds containing substantially colder cargo. This type of sweat generally occurs when the vessel is travelling from a colder to a warmer place and the outside air has a dew point above the temperature of the cargo.

Cargo Ventilation

Vessel sweat refers to the condensation that occurs on the surface of the vessel when the air inside the hold is made moist and warm by the cargo, when the later comes in contact with the vessel surface as the vessel moves from a hot to cold region. Vessel sweat leads to formation of overhead drips inside the hold or accumulation of condensed water at the bottom of the hold, which may lead to cargo damage. Thus, cargo ventilation systems are provided on ships.

Cargo ventilation system helps in the following:

  • Prevent cargo and ship sweat
  • Supply fresh air to the cargo
  • Prevent building up of poisonous gases
  • Removing of smell of previous cargo
  • Getting rid of heat and moisture given out by some types of cargo

Cargo ventilation on ships is important for both hygroscopic and non-hygroscopic cargoes.

Hygroscopic cargo has natural water/moisture content. This type of cargo is mainly plant products, which absorb, retain, and release water within the cargo. This water leads to significant heating and spreading of moisture in the cargo and result in caking or spoiling or cargo.

Non-hygroscopic cargo has no water content; however, they can get spoilt in moist environment.

Cargo Ventilation on Ships

The dew point of the air, both inside and outside the cargo hold plays an important role in determining the quality of cargo. Here, the “Dewpoint Rule” is taken into consideration to provide ventilation and keep the temperature within the favourable range.

According to the Dewpoint Rule, ventilation must be provided if the dewpoint of the air inside the hold is higher than the dewpoint of the air outside the hold. However, ventilation must not be provided if the dewpoint of the air inside the hold is lower than the dewpoint of the air outside the hold.

Sometimes it’s impracticable to measure the dewpoint temperature of the cargo hold. In such circumstances, ventilation is provided by comparing average cargo temperature at the time of loading with the outside air temperature.

Cargo ventilation is important for both hygroscopic and non-hygroscopic products. However, the former one requires more careful monitoring and checks along with appropriate ventilation than the later one.

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DSME: first Arctic LNG carrier to test icebreaking capabilities during sea trials

DSME: first Arctic LNG carrier to test icebreaking capabilities during sea trials
Image courtesy of DSME

South Korean shipbuilder Daewoo Shipbuilding Marine Engineering (DSME) completed the construction of the first Arctic LNG carrier, the Christophe de Margerie. 

According to the shipbuilder’s statement, the vessel, named after former Total’s CEO who died in a tragic plane crash at the end of 2014, is scheduled to set out for its sea trials in the Arctic sea to test its icebreaking capabilities during the week, after 30 months of construction.

Following the completion of sea trials, the 172,600-cbm LNG carrier will be delivered to its owner, Sovcomflot, at the end of January.

The Arc7 ice class Christophe de Margerie will be able to navigate in ice fields of up to 2.1 meters thick as its bow and stern are covered with 70 millimeters of steel plates capable of withstanding temperatures of -52°C.

DSME has further 14 Arctic LNG carrier on order, all contracted to serve the Yamal LNG project in Russia.

Christophe de Margerie is the only vessel ordered by Sovcomflot while the remaining 14 vessels are owned by MOL (three) Teekay (six) and Dynagas (five). Deliveries of the remaining newbuilds are scheduled over the next four years.

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How Does LNG Terminal Works?

LNG (Liquified Natural Gas) terminal is a reception facility for unloading of cargo from LNG tankers. This purpose built ports are specially used for export and import of LNG.  A variety of facilities for unloading, regasification, tanking, metering etc. of LNG are provided at these terminals.

Natural gas is transported in liquified state using LNG gas tankers. At LNG terminals, the liquified natural gas is turned back into gaseous state (regasified) after unloading from ships and then distributed across the network. The activity at LNG terminal can be divided into four main stages.

1. Receiving and Unloading of LNG from ships

2. Storage or tanking of LNG

3. Compression and regasification

4. Transmission

lng terminal

1. Receiving and Unloading of LNG from Ships 

Special types of pipes are used to transfer LNG from the ships to the storage tanks on the terminal. The LNG gas is received at extremely low temperature (-160 C) while transferring to the tanks. The tanker is moored at the unloading quay and the LNG is offloaded using three arms (special pipes) located at the quay.

2. Storage or Tanking of LNG

The LNG passes through the pipelines that joins the arms to the tanks and is stored inside the tanks at a temperature of -160 C.  Tanking of LNG involves storing at special cryogenic tank designed for extremely low temperature. The double walled insulated tanks are made to store the gas in liquid state by preventing boil-off. The outer walls of the tanks are made of prestressed reinforced concrete or steel to attain the finest insulation for the LNG.

In spite of such high insulation, minor evaporation still takes place because of low heat leakage. Compressor and recondensing system are used to collect this gas and feed it back to the LNG. This recycling system prevents any kind of escape of LNG from the system.

Reliquefyer /Recondensor

Reliquefyer is a collector system wherein LNG from the tanks and Boil off from the compressors is collected before is goes for the regasification process. High pressure pumps are used to push LNG from the Reliquefyer to the Regasification system. Recondensor also helps in keeping the boil off gas in the liquid state.

Regasification LNG Terminal - For Representation Purpose Only; Credits:

Regasification LNG Terminal – For Representation Purpose Only; Credits:

3. Regasification Process / Vaporizer system

Regasification is the process of converting LNG gas from liquid state to gaseous state. Heat exchangers are used to regasify the LNG after it is removed from the tanks and pressurized between 70-100 bars. Generally sea water is used for the regasification process along with high pressure pumps for transferring LNG.

How Regasification is done?

Regasification process involves raising the temperature of the LNG using seawater. The LNG gas is passed through a heat exchanger using sea water. Some LNG terminals also use turbine flue gases from their energy recovery systems. LNG is thus converted into gaseous state by heating at a temperature greater than 0 degree Celsius.

Some LNG terminals also have underwater burners which are also used to heat the LNG to convert it to gaseous form. Such burners use natural gas as fuel and are generally used during peak demand period. Such vaporizers are called submerged combustion vaporizers.

4. Transmission 

Once it is turned back to the gaseous state, the natural gas undergoes metering, odorizing, analysis etc. before it is fed to the natural gas transmission system.

As natural gas is odorless and inflammable, it is odorised to detect the slightest leak. This is mainly done by injecting tetrahydrothiophene(THT) in the LNG before it is distributed.

This is a general overview of the various processes that takes place at an LNG terminal. An LNG terminal can work a bit differently on the basis of the requirement and purpose of the particular terminal.

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